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External failure

When any type of defective item or rejects pass through an entire process and are received by the end user. These are the most costly types of failures due to the time involved to fix the error and customer perceptions, (see defect for additional reasoning).

These failures are almost always related to non-value added activities and are reflected in the VOC, (voice of the customer).

It is more expensive because product can become damaged due to excess handling during repairs, retesting, re-inspection, and costs related to other overhead items such as moving defective product from and back to customer.

Related to customer requirements.

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Last Updated: Saturday, 10-Jun-06 15:50:57 PDT